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5.1a Outbreak of the Revolution (March 1917)

In March 1917 the people converged in a march on the streets of Petrograd even though the government had ordered the army to open fire on them. The soldiers did not carry out the government orders, as they were also influenced by the ideas of revolution. Strikes were staged everywhere in the country. Seeing this, the Czar dissolved the Parliament. Firing took place at some places. A resolution was passed on 14th March for establishing the collective government. Following this Nicholas II had to leave his throne. A revolutionary government was set up. With this the reign of the Czar came to an end. The government of revolutionaries lasted only till November 1917. After that power was captured by the Bolsheviks and Lenin assumed the leadership of the Revolution.

Exhibit 5.1
V.I. Ulyanov Lenin

5.1b Bolshevik Government

The Bolshevik Revolution was a Revolution of poor farmers and laborers. Its purpose was to end the autocracy of the rulers. It desired to form a government of laborers. The All Russian Soviet Congress was established with similar intentions. Also a central executive committee was established which had 200 members. The Bolsheviks opposed the continuance of war, and made a demand for the rights of the people. Many started joining the Bolsheviks and their numbers swelled. They ultimately succeeded as they acted according to the desire and requirements of the masses.

Exhibit 5.2
Josef Stalin

Stalin became the leader of Russia. In 1923, the USSR was established and Stalin was given sweeping powers. Stalin also introduced a new economic policy, organized industries and established syndicates. During the implementation of the five-year plans, Stalin generated vast power and arranged for rapid means of transport in Russia. Factories of coal and iron were established and new roads and railways were constructed in Russia. The prestige of Russia rose in the international arena.

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5.0 Introduction
5.1 The Russian Revolution
5.2 NAZI Germany
5.3 Fascism in Italy
5.4 The Second Great War
5.5 Impact of the Second Great War
5.6 The Establishment of the U.N.O.
5.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 6

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