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4.8 Points to Remember

The Revolution of 1848

  • Liberalism was strong in Europe.

  • The expansion of commerce and industry led to the rise of capitalism.

  • In France, the condition of people was worsening.

  • The ideas of liberalism were very strong in the minds of the people.

  • The feeling of nationalism was revived and brought about the revolution of 1848.

Unification of Italy

  • The Kingdom of Italy was divided by Vienna.

  • The feeling of nationalism was strong among the people.

  • Secret societies were formed for the unification of Italy.

  • Mazzini, Cavour, Garibaldi etc. were among those who worked for unification.

Foundation of the German Empire

  • German states were a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

  • It comprised of people of varied blood.

  • The north German Federation was established and merged with Prussia.

  • Alsace and Lorraine were given over to Prussia.

  • United German National Federation was established.

  • The Prussian Emperor became the Emperor of the whole of Germany.

Balkan Wars

  • Different Christian races staying in different kingdoms by force desired to form a federation of Balkan States.

  • The Prime Minister of Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria formed the federation.

  • As Turkey was weak they attacked her. This was the First Balkan War.

  • Over the division of the spoils of war, a war was fought among the Balkan states.This was the Second Balkan war.

The First Great War (1914-18)

  • Nationalism, the Arms Race, Secret Alliances etc. were the causes of this war.

  • The nations of world were divided into 2 groups.

  • America joined the war at the end.
  • The Allies won the war.

Impact of the World War I

  • There was heavy loss of life and property.

  • There was a social, economic and political impact also.

  • Due to the Treaty of 1919, the defeated group suffered badly.

  • The League of Nations was formed.

League of Nations

  • The League of Nations was formed to maintain world peace.

  • Its aims and objectives were to solve international disputes peacefully.

  • However, the League of Nations failed.



4.0 - Introduction
4.1 The Revolution of 1848
4.2 The Unification Of Italy
4.3 The Founding of the Gernam Empire
4.4 The Balkan War
4.5 The First World War
4.6 The Impact of the First World War
4.7 The Founding of the League of Nations
4.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 5

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