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3.0 Introduction

This chapter deals with the revolutions, wars and dictatorships in Europe in the eighteenth century. Both England and France had adopted a policy of imperialism, and colonialism. They desired to acquire colonies in America, India, Africa etc. This race could end only through war. A long tussle was going on between the two nations. All this finally ended in the Seven Years' War.

The most important among the revolutions was the Industrial Revolution. This brought changes in the lives of people in power as well as the common masses. It influenced the life-styles of most Europeans. It started in England and spread all over Europe. Its effects were later seen throughout the world.

Catherine II deserved to be called great as she was the most distinguished of women in Russian History. Even though she gained the Russian throne by means of crime, she wielded it with consummate ease. She supported absolute despotism. She followed the policy of expansion in her foreign matters.

The French Revolution is one of the most important events of the history of world. Because of the bad socio-economic political conditions of France, the bloody Revolution occurred.

During the Reign of Terror in France, the revolutionaries held trials of many people in power and dictated judgments to them. These punishments included mass killing and long-term imprisonment for the guilty.

"The crown of France was lying on the ground. I picked it with my sword," said Napoleon. He rose from the ranks of an ordinary soldier in the French army to become the Emperor of France. As the Emperor, Napoleon made many reforms for his country. Once he reached the zenith of his career, he moved towards the fall. The rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte is an important event in European history.

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3.0 - Introduction
3.1 The Seven Years' War
3.2 Catherine the Great
3.3 The Industrial Revolution
3.4 The French Revolution
3.5 France as a Republic (1795 - 1799)
3.6 Napolean Bonaparte
3.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 4

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