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11. The author describes the island with words that give the reader subtle clues to what he thinks about the boys' paradise. An ugly "scar" is smashed into the island where wreckage of the plane that dropped them fell. As Ralph breaks through the creepers (even that word indicates menace), a bird the color of fire and heat sounds a "witch-like cry," as if it were announcing doom. Ralph stands among the "skull-like" coconuts. When Piggy appears he is scratched with thorns. This hardly seems like a friendly place, even though Ralph thinks it will be wonderful.
12. The boys have read such adventure stories as Treasure Island, Coral Island, Robinson Crusoe, and Swiss Family Robinson. All these books offer the theory that man is corrupted by living in civilization. The premise of each of them is that if man were placed in a more natural setting, say a deserted island or a paradise, he would revert to his original state of natural goodness. The authors of these books, and many people throughout history, believed that civilization, with all its evils, was a corrupter of man. The boys have never thought to question this idea, but that is what Golding does in the novel. The notion that man was good and civilization bad was so widely held that it was accepted as fact by just about everyone in Europe before World War II. Golding began to question the idea after his war experiences.
13. Names are significant in this novel. The nickname Piggy is connected to the killing and eating of pig and what happens to the character. Ralph's name means "counsel," and Ralph tries to rule his meetings by sharing leadership with the others. Jack means "one who supplants," someone who takes power by force-which is exactly Jack's nature. Simon's name means "listener," and Simon is the only boy who hears the Lord of the Flies.
Certain boys' names are never told; they are recognized only by their size, as "littluns" or "biguns." Some boys lose their names. The twins come to share only one name between them ("Samneric"), and Jack who becomes "Chief." One boy seems to have forgotten his name at the end. The implication is that these boys have lost their personal identities.
In ancient legends, characters were cautious about revealing their names. A person was believed to have power over another if he knew his real name. Someone who wanted to protect himself against his enemies would make up a name for himself and not reveal his real one. In a symbolic sense, that is why Piggy is upset when Ralph tells his name to everyone. Jack gains power over Piggy by being able to mock his name.
When the boys can no longer call the beast by name, it means that the fear of it has overtaken them and gained power over them. Simon is the exception; he can call the beast by name, and even though he fears it, it never gains power over his spiritual nature.
14. In Chapter 3, Jack teaches himself to stalk a pig. He is described as being down on all fours like a dog and unaware of his discomfort. He learns to track like an animal and to ignore pain in his body the way an animal would. He can see in the dark like an animal. Later Jack smells pig droppings, relearning the sense of smell that human beings lost long ago.
After they roast a pig in Chapter 4, Jack tries to describe the feeling of the hunt. His language is very primitive: "I painted my face-I stole up. Now you eat-all of you-and I-" He can hardly express his thoughts anymore; it is as if he were losing the power to think while his animal instincts are gaining strength.