A STEP BEYOND
- ADAM SMITH
One of Thomas Gradgrind's younger sons, named after
the British economist whose doctrine of laissez-faire Dickens felt resulted
in many of the abuses of the Industrial Revolution.
A breed of dairy cattle.
In the Anglican church, a parish official who keeps
order during the services, waits on the clergyman, etc.
A fictional character known for having several wives,
all of whom he murdered.
A Roman politician; one of the men who assassinated
A country bumpkin; Tom Gradgrind's disguise when he
attempts to flee the country.
A mythical beast with the head, trunk, and arms of a
man and the body and legs of a horse.
Someone who sells trinkets door-to-door; also, one who
- COCKER, EDWIN
Famous British mathematician whose accuracy was so respected
that the phrase "according to Cocker" came to mean "according
- DOCTORS COMMONS
The law courts that specialized in divorce cases in
nineteenth- century England.
Pertaining to horses or horsemanship.
- FAIRY PALACES
Dickens's ironic name for the Coketown factories, given
because they resemble glittering palaces when seen from a speeding train.
A hideous woman. In Greek mythology, a Gorgon was a
woman with serpents growing from her head.
Three goddesses associated with the enjoyment of life.
Collective name for Coketown factory employees.
A traveling circus specializing in horse acts.
- HOUSE OF COMMONS
The lower house of British Parliament, whose representatives
- HOUSE OF LORDS
The upper, nonelective House of Parliament.
- LIGHT PORTER
Messenger; Bitzer's job at Bounderby's bank.
- LORD CHESTERFIELD
Philip Dormer Stanhope, the fourth earl of Chesterfield
(1694- 1773); famous for his letters to his son, which are full of advice
about education, breeding, and morals.
- LORD HARRY
British mathematician whose theories on population Dickens
found objectionable and dangerous; also, the name given to one of Gradgrind's
Mr. Jupe's dog, seen as a symbol of eternal loyalty.
A person who hates mankind.
Ali Baba's servant in the Arabian Nights tales; her
techniques are compared to those of M'Choakumchild.
To run away.
A monster in fairy tales and fables, usually represented
as a hideous giant.
- OLD HELL SHAFT
The name of the abandoned mine shaft into which Stephen
A train that provided the cheapest way of travel; the
means Mrs. Pegler uses to get from her home to Coketown.
A mythical flying horse.
A medicine that purges; a laxative.
- PLAY OLD GOOSEBERRY
To play havoc; said of Mrs. Blackpool.
A structure consisting of a roof supported by columns,
usually attached to a building as a porch.
A person who rides the horse on the left of the leading
pair when four or more horses are used to draw a carriage.
- PROFESSOR OWEN
Sir Richard Owen, a well-known expert on comparative
- PUBLIC HOUSE
A tavern with rooms for renting.
A person who fights with his fists, usually professionally.
- ROBINSON CRUSOE
Hero of Daniel Defoe's famous novel, written in 1719;
tells of a shipwrecked man who creates his own civilization on a deserted
- SENT TO COVENTRY
Shunned, rejected; said of Stephen Blackpool when he
refuses to join the union.
- SLOUGH OF DESPOND
An allegorical state of deep despair, from John Bunyan's
Pilgrim's Progress (1678).
Of or pertaining to the people of Sparta, a city of
ancient Greece; Spartans were known for their discipline and bravery in
the face of danger.
- STONE LODGE
The Gradgrind family home.
An itinerant performer.
The pancreas of a calf or lamb, considered a delicacy
- TOWER OF BABEL
A tower erected in the ancient city of Babel whose purpose
was to reach God; the result was a confusion of languages.
Roman goddess of love and beauty.
An article of food, usually one considered a delicacy.
Food supplies; provisions.
The offspring of an animal; Dickens's term for Tom Gradgrind,
A device used for hoisting; usually having a horizontal
dram on which a rope attached to the load is wound.
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