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Parts of the book you'll want to refer to in answering the essay questions are labeled One, Two, Three, with sections numbered I, II, etc. For example, One, IV means Part One, Section IV.
11. You'll want to remind your reader that Orwell was worried about the march of Communism in Stalinist Russia, and about the rise of Fascism in Hitler's Germany and Franco's Spain (see The Author and His Times). He also worried about English Socialism and feared that, if a government got too much power in any country, human freedom would disappear. You can use examples of Party surveillance (the telescreens, Thought Police, Ministry of Love) and enforcement from One, I-IV to demonstrate how Orwell delivered his message. You can describe events from Winston's life in One and Two to show how loss of individual freedom affects one man.
12. You can write about how Winston's story affected you. Did you care about him and Julia? Were you sympathetic to them and worried about their fate when they began their love affair?
Look at The Characters section for ways to develop your answer. The section on Form and Structure will help you decide whether the inclusion of the long extract of political writing (Two, IX) and the Appendix helped or hurt the novel.
Specific examples of the way Winston thinks about Julia and the way he treats her are in Parts One and Two of the novel, particularly in One, I and II; and Two, I, IV and V. You'll want to use these examples if you have to write about how the love story affected you. They will also be useful for your discussion of the next question too.
13. There are fairly extensive descriptions of the Party's use of sexual sublimation to promote war fever in One, I, of Winston's thoughts on motherhood and the dark-haired girl in One, III, and on prostitutes and marriage in One, IV. Using these sections, you can make a fairly strong case that Winston is a sexist who divides women into two classes-mothers, who are not sexual, and sexual women, who are "bad," and therefore attractive. You may want to draw conclusions from this about the author as well. As you develop your answer, look at the sections listed in the last paragraph of Question 2 to see how Winston thinks about Julia, and how he treats her.
14. You can refer to the telescreen described in One, I and used everywhere throughout the novel (look especially at Two, VIII) as a symbol or a demonstration of Party oppression. Equally important are (a) the engraving of St. Clement's Dane which Winston sees in One, VIII at Mr. Charrington's and which figures importantly during his capture in Two, IX, and (b) the paperweight, both a symbol of the past when Winston buys it in One, VIII and a symbol of the destruction of Winston's world in Two, IX, when the paperweight is shattered at the time of his capture.
15. Look at the extensive description of Winston's job in One, II (see Note at end of the section,) and especially One, III to see how the Party rewrites history for its purposes. The rapid about-face as the enemy changes in the middle of Hate Week (Two, opening of IX) shows this happening. In Two, IX in "Goldstein's" book which Winston is reading, you will see not only how history is rewritten, but why.
As you'll see in Two IX, the Party rewrites history in order to maintain power. Rewriting the past allows the Party to keep members ignorant of any mistakes the Party might have made and removes any basis for comparison with either the past or other societies.