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6.6 Points to Remember

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • NATO came into being in 1949 to counteract the Soviet treaty.

  • The major commands of NATO are

  • The clause of NATO is that armed aggression against one would be considered as an attack on all.

  • In 1994, the East European countries showed an interest in joining the NATO.

  • and Ukraine signed a deal by which Clinton promised safety for Europe.

  • to NATO is now open to all European countries.

  • By the Warsaw Pact, six countries were bound to communities.

  • In March 1991, the organs and structures of the Warsaw Pact were dismantled, and the treaty was wound up.

The Collapse of Communism in Russia

  • Russia became a super power after the Second World War.

  • From 1964-82, Brezhnev, a dictator ruled over Russia.

  • After 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev took over.

  • The leading role of the Communist Party was abolished in February 1990.

  • An attempt by a group of communist hard-liners to depose Gorbachev was defeated by the resistance of Russian President Yeltsin and the army’s refusal to take action against unarmed civilian protest.

  • After a pact was signed between the rebels of Chechnya and the Russian Security Chief, peace was established in Chechnya.
  • In the elections of 1996, Yeltsin won over his communist challenger.

  • The economy in Russia continues to slide.

  • Supporters of Yeltsin are now shifting sides.

European Monetary Union

  • As per the treaty of Maastricht European countries have committed to co-ordinate their economic policies.

  • Three stages were to be completed for the beginning of a monetary union (January 1999).

  • There are differences of opinion regarding this amongst the European nations.



6.0 - Introduction
6.1 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
6.2 The Collapse of Communism in Russia
6.3 Decolonization
6.4 European Monetary Union
6.5 The Re-Unification of Germany
6.6 Points to Remember

Chapter 1

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