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The main theme of Song of Solomon is the rootlessness of African Americans who live in northern cities. A search for family means a journey south. A search for family means a search for connection, identity, and history.
The minor theme of the novel is the damaged family relations which result from the effects of racism--the overt racism of land-grabbing and murdering and the subtle racism of internalized oppression. Milkmanís parents manifest the effects of these two kinds of racism in their dysfunctional relationships with each other and their children.
The mood of Song of Solomon is one of commemoration. It is a commemoration of the past, of ancestors, but that mood is interrupted in the present-day setting, in the protagonistís generation, by a mood of restlessness and rootlessness. The two moods of the novel intertwine and play against one another until the protagonist finds the value for himself, for his present life, in learning about his ancestorsí struggles.