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THE TALES: SUMMARIES AND NOTES
Chaucer’s Tale of Melibee
The main subject of this story is whether one should avenge violence with more violence. A rich young man named Melibee and his wife named Dame Prudence had a daughter called Sophie. It so happened that when Melibee was away from home, three of his enemies entered his house and beat up his wife and grievously injured his daughter. When Melibee returned home his wife told him to abandon all thoughts of revenge. She advised him to consult his friends and relatives and then decide on the course of action. Melibee followed his wife’s advice and a great argument was engendered. While some favored revenge, others advised Melibee to act with caution. Dame Prudence herself advised Melibee to have patience and not to act in haste. However Melibee refused to court danger by following female advice. He also did not wish to appear effeminate and a weakling because if he acted on her advice it would seem that he had given up his authority to her. At this Dame Prudence undertook a great defense of the excellence of advice given by women and quoted numerous authorities in her support. Finally Melibee surrendered and agreed to follow her advice. Dame Prudence persuaded Melibee to be reconciled with his enemies.
Ultimately when his enemies were brought before him, Melibee wished to impose a fine upon them. However Dame Prudence dismissed this idea. Finally Melibee forgave his enemies completely after rebuking them. The reader does not learn anything about Melibee’s daughter Sophia.
The Tale of Melibee is a prose allegory. It is a close translation of ‘Le Livre de Melibe et de Dame Prudence’ ascribed to Renaud de Louens, which is itself based on Albertinius of Brescia’s ‘Liber Consolationis et Consilii’. The allegorical meaning of the tale is quite absurd. The name of the central character, Melibee, means a man who drinks honey, i.e. the honey of riches and worldly honor and glory. Thus Melibee is drunk with worldly glory and has forgotten God. His enemies ---the world, the flesh, and the devil --- attack him and his wisdom (daughter Sophie) is injured. Since the reader does not learn anything about Sophie’s condition this symbolizes Melibee’s fall. However at the end the enemies are presented as real enemies and Dame Prudence mediates on their behalf. She advises Melibee to exercise restraint. Melibee must necessarily become reconciled with his enemies. However the reconciliation implies resignation and trust in God’s mercy and grace. These two planes of meaning are inconsistent with each other and hence absurd.